In this resource our expert, Dr Stephen Dobson, University of Leeds, explains how you can use ‘Fishbone’ analysis to help you determine which problems your organisation might be able to address with digital change.
The first step in identifying the most important areas where digital can have a positive impact on your heritage organisation involves some soul-searching about what are the key challenges and issues you face. If digital change may be seen as a solution, then what is the problem or problems that it is solving?
Usually, any team will disagree on the root causes of problems. You may all be looking at them from slightly different perspectives and from the point of view of different aspects of the organisation.
This is where employing a framework to guide your approach can help you make sense of what is happening within your organisation. With this approach, it becomes easier to assess the role digital change can have in helping your organisation run more smoothly.
In the 1950s, Japanese Professor Kaurou Ishikawa recommended a visual approach to exploring the root cause for problems and identifying the key areas for change. This approach is also referred to as ‘Fishbone’ analysis due to the appearance of the diagram, which can be seen below.
Conducting your analysis
As with any aspect of a change programme, it is important to get as many staff, trustees and volunteers together to do this analysis in an open and participatory manner.
Step 1: Brainstorm a key problem or issue – this might relate to falling visitor numbers or lack of engagement with a new resource or website. Or perhaps it may be the lack of representation from diverse groups or young people in events or in the demographic make-up of visitors.
Step 2: The ‘five whys’ – in each of the six categories – are then explored in detail to establish if anyone thinks they contribute to the problem. There are bound to be disagreements and the discussions may even get quite heated. It is important here to note down all opinions and not to close down or try to filter the causes of problems at this stage. Everyone will want to feel that they are being heard and that their opinions are valuable.
The categories are:
- Technology – the IT and systems that are used by the organisation.
- Process – the administrative and operational day-to-day routines in running the organisation.
- People – the number of available staff and their skills, knowledge and expertise.
- Heritage assets – these include artefacts, exhibits, sites, structures, landscape or physical and digital records.
- Environment – the place, local community, local, regional and national identity. The office spaces and infrastructure.
- Management – this may refer to management style, information flow, effective team leadership etc.
If someone feels that there is a particular issue associated with one of these categories, then this is written onto the branch as a sub-branch or a ‘primary cause’. The whole group then thinks of why this might be a cause of the problem. All the possibilities are written on this branch as secondary causes. This is then repeated. The idea is that the root cause (or causes) is never more than ‘five whys’ away from the problem.
Consider the following points when approaching digital change through the lens of a ‘Fishbone’ analysis. Consider how you might apply this in your organisation.
- Using an open question approach like this to analyse a problem is a constructive way to help diffuse tensions and to manage disagreement.
- It is helpful in determining the relationship between a perceived problem and its root causes.
- This kind of analysis helps target any digital strategy or investment decisions in the more important areas for your organisation.
- As a participatory exercise it helps ensure the right start to a process of change with all involved feeling like they share the problem and have contributed to the planned solutions.
- Investing in digital resources, new technology, and training can sometimes feel like unnecessary expenditure to some staff – if they can see how it fits into solving some root causes of a bigger problem then you are much more likely to gain support.
Now try the approach for yourself. Use a Fishbone diagram to conduct your own analysis and apply it to your organisation. You can either draw your own version using the image in the root cause analysis section of this article, or view this free template to identify your key challenges and issues where digital can help.
Please attribute as: "Using root cause analysis to help you identify where digital can make the biggest difference (2022) by Dr Stephen Dobson supported by The National Lottery Heritage Fund, licensed under CC BY 4.0